This course aims to provide students with physics-related learning experiences to foster scientific literacy for active participation in a rapidly evolving, knowledge-based society. It prepares them for further study or employment in fields related to physics and encourages them to become lifelong learners of science and technology.


The broad aims of the curriculum are to enable students to:


  • Develop interest in the physical world and maintain a sense of wonder and curiosity about it;
  • Construct and apply knowledge of physics, and appreciate the relationship between physical science and other disciplines;
  • Appreciate and understand the nature of science in physics-related contexts, and develop skills for making scientific inquiries;
  • Foster the ability to think scientifically, critically, and creatively, and solve problems both individually and collaboratively within physics-related contexts;
  • Understand the language of science and communicate ideas and views on physics-related issues;
  • Make informed decisions and judgments on physics-related issues; and
  • Develop awareness of the social, ethical, economic, environmental, and technological implications of physics, fostering an attitude of responsible citizenship.


The learning targets of the curriculum are categorised into three domains: knowledge and understanding, skills and processes, and values and attitudes. Through the learning embodied in the curriculum, students are intended to achieve the relevant learning targets.


Knowledge and Understanding

Students are expected to:


  • Understand phenomena, facts and patterns, principles, concepts, laws, theories and models in physics;
  • Learn the vocabulary, terminology and conventions used in physics;
  • Acquire knowledge of techniques and skills specific to the study of physics; and
  • Develop an understanding of technological applications of physics and of their social implications.


Skills and Processes


  1. Scientific thinking

Students are expected to:

  • Identify attributes of objects and natural phenomena;
  • Identify patterns and changes in the natural world and predict trends from them;
  • Examine evidence and apply logical reasoning to draw valid conclusions;
  • Present concepts of physics in mathematical terms whenever appropriate;
  • Appreciate the fundamental role of models in exploring observed natural phenomena;
  • Appreciate that models are modified as new or conflicting evidence is found;
  • Examine theories and concepts through logical reasoning and experimentation;
  • Recognise preconceptions or misconceptions with the aid of experimental evidence; and
  • Integrate concepts within a framework of knowledge, and apply them to new situations.


  1. Scientific investigation

Students are expected to:

  • Ask relevant questions;
  • Propose hypotheses for scientific phenomena and devise methods to test them;
  • Identify dependent and independent variables in investigations;
  • Devise plans and procedures to carry out investigations;
  • Select appropriate methods and apparatus to carry out investigations;
  • Observe and record experimental observations accurately and honestly;
  • Organise and analyse data, and infer from observations and experimental results;
  • Use graphical techniques appropriately to display experimental results and to convey concepts;
  • Produce reports on investigations, draw conclusions and make further predictions;
  • Evaluate experimental results and identify factors affecting their quality and reliability; and
  • Propose plans for further investigations, if appropriate.


  1. Practical work

Students are expected to:

  • Devise and plan experiments;
  • Select appropriate apparatus and materials for an experiment;
  • Follow procedures to carry out experiments;
  • Handle apparatus properly and safely;
  • Measure to the precision allowed by the instruments;
  • Recognise the limitations of the instruments used;
  • Interpret observations and experimental data; and
  • Evaluate experimental methods and suggest possible improvements.


  1. Problem-solving

Students are expected to:

  • Clarify and analyse problems related to physics;
  • Apply knowledge and principles of physics to solve problems;
  • Suggest creative ideas or solutions to problems;
  • Propose solution plans and evaluate their feasibility; and
  • Devise appropriate strategies to deal with issues that may arise.


  1. Decision-making

Students are expected to:

  • Make decisions based on the examination of evidence and arguments;
  • Support judgments using appropriate scientific principles; and
  • Put forward suitable reasoning to choose between alternatives.


  1. Information handling

Students are expected to:

  • Search, retrieve, reorganise, analyse and interpret scientific information from libraries, the media, the Internet and multi-media software packages;
  • Use information technology to manage and present information, and to develop habits of self-directed learning;
  • Be cautious about the accuracy and credibility of information from secondary sources; and
  • Distinguish between facts, opinions, and value judgments when processing scientific information.


  1. Communication

Students are expected to:

  • Read and understand articles involving physics terminology, concepts and principles;
  • Use appropriate terminology to communicate information related to physics in oral, written or other suitable forms; and
  • Organise, present and communicate physics ideas clearly and logically.


  1. Collaboration

Students are expected to:

  • Participate actively, share ideas and offer suggestions in group discussions;
  • Collaborate, negotiate, and compromise with others during group work;
  • Identify collective goals, and define and agree on the roles and responsibilities of members in science projects requiring team work;
  • Act responsibly to accomplish allocated tasks;
  • Remain open and responsive to ideas and constructive feedback from team members;
  • Build on the different strengths of members to maximise the potential of the team;
  • Demonstrate willingness to offer help to less able team members and to seek help from more able members; and
  • Make use of strategies to work effectively as members of project teams.


  1. Self-directed learning

Students are expected to:

  • Improve their study skills for more effective and efficient learning;
  • Engage in self-directed learning activities in the study of physics; and
  • Develop appropriate learning habits, abilities and positive attitudes that are essential to the foundation of lifelong and independent learning.


Values and Attitudes


  1. Towards themselves and others

Students are expected to:

  • Develop and uphold positive values and attitudes such as curiosity, honesty, respect for evidence, perseverance, and tolerance of uncertainty through the study of physics;
  • Cultivate a habit of self-reflection and the ability to think critically;
  • Show willingness to communicate and comment on issues related to physics and science;
  • Foster open-mindedness and demonstrate tolerance and respect for differing opinions and decisions, even when in disagreement; and
  • Understand the importance of safety for themselves and others, and commit to safe practices in their daily lives.


  1. Towards physics and the world we live in

Students are expected to:

  • Appreciate achievements in physics and acknowledge their limitations;
  • Accept the provisional nature of the knowledge and theory of physics;
  • Apply the knowledge and understanding of physics rationally when making informed decisions or judgments on issues in their daily lives; and
  • Understand the social, economic, environmental, and technological implications of advancements in physics.


  1. Towards learning as a lifelong process

Students are expected to:

  • Understand the evolutionary nature of scientific knowledge and recognize that constant updating of knowledge is crucial in the world of science and technology;
  • Stay informed about new developments in physics, science and technology, and nurture an interest in these areas; and
  • Recognize the importance of lifelong learning in our rapidly evolving knowledge-based society.