Knowledge and Understanding:

(a)  Students are expected to develop the knowledge and understanding of how natural environments influence human activities, and how human activities alter natural environments;

(b)  The changing development of geographical phenomena and issues in terms of space and time;

(c)  The characteristics and functioning of major natural environments, through analysing the processes and interactions within and between them

(d)  The characteristics and development of major human activities, in order to achieve a sense of “region”; and

(e)  The issues arising from people-environment interactions and the human responses to such issues, as well as the implications of these human responses for resource management.



Students are expected to develop geographical enquiry skills, including the ability to:

  1. Identify and ask questions from a geographical perspective;
  2. Locate, select and extract appropriate information and data from primary and secondary sources (e.g. the field, surveys, documents, maps, charts, ground and aerial photos and Geographic Information System [GIS] data), which require the ability to observe and record data systematically and accurately;
  3. Present and organise information and data, which involves the ability to use appropriate techniques for summarising (e.g. descriptive statistics such as measures of central tendency and variability); use appropriate formats, such as texts (e.g. reports, tables, summaries, etc.) and illustrations (such as maps, diagrams, models, sketches, and graphs);
  4. Compare, analyse, synthesise and evaluate, in order to interpret information and data for making inferences and drawing conclusions, which includes:
  5. The use of appropriate statistical techniques (e.g. correlation); analysis of spatial patterns using GIS;
  6. Evaluate the findings, solutions or conclusions drawn from enquiry.


Furthermore, students are expected to develop generic skills of communication, critical thinking, problem-solving, and creativity through geographical enquiry, in particular the ability to:

  1. Select appropriate means of effective communication;
  2. Draw out meaning from information, and determine what to believe and what not to believe;
  3. Analyse problems through logical reasoning, and determine the optimal course of action from a number of alternatives;
  4. View situations from different perspectives and adopt appropriate approaches to analyse problems.


Values and Attitudes:

Students are expected to develop values and attitudes that will enable them to:

  1. Have a sense of wonder and curiosity about peoples, places and environments;
  2. Show respect for all peoples, and their cultures, values and ways of life;
  3. Recognise environmental problems and take appropriate action to promote sustainable development;
  4. Cultivate a sense of belonging to society and the nation and become active and responsible citizens; and
  5. Be aware of the increasing global interdependence of peoples and nations, and appreciate the importance of international solidarity and cooperation.